Friday, January 8, 2010


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Guava which is among the most sociable fruit trees of the myrtle species is universally recognized by its generic English name or its equivalent in other dialects. Its tree is known as guayabo or guayavo and its fruit is guayaba or guava in Spanish. French name it goyave or goyavier; the Dutch, guyaba, goeajaaba; the Surinamese, guave or goejaba; and the Portuguese, goiaba or goaibeira. Hawaiians call it guava or kuawa. In Guam it is abas. In Malaya, it is generally known either as guava or jambu batu, but has also numerous dialectal names as it does in India, tropical Africa and the Philippines, the fruit and its tree is referred to as bayabas.

Guavas are propagated in various tropical and subtropical states for their edible fruit. Various classess are cultivated for commercial purposes which renders Apple Guava and its cultivars are those regularly traded globally. Adult trees of most classes can sustain as freezing climate at 5 deg C for a limited time compared to younger ones. Guavas can be grown in pots indoors, the reason that is brought enthusiast to home growers.

In some countries in Asia, guava fruit is taken raw and is associated with a pinch of salt and pepper. It's a well-known nibble for students, having street vendors selling each for a couple of rupees outside schools and colleges and is as well prepared as a desert in a form of fruit salads. In Asia, fresh guava slices are often dipped in preserved prune powder or salt. In India it is often sprinkled with red rock salt, which is very tart.

Guavas are extensively used to make candies, jellies, jams, marmalades, and juices due to its high content of pectin. "Red" guavas can be utilized as the base of salted products like sauces, make up an alternative for tomatoes, particularly for those receptive to the latter's acidity. In Asia, a drink is made from an infusion of guava fruits and leaves and is considered medicine.

This rich-nutrient fruit are usually traded as “superfruit” due to its vitamins and mineral contents. Among those nutrient contents are vitamin A and vitamin C. It seeds are abundant in omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and particularly dietary fiber. A piece of guava contains four times the vitamin C of orange and is as well has an ideal level of dietary minerals like folate, potassium, magnesium.

Tannins, phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, vitamins, fiber and fatty acids are the chemicals found rich in guava. Guava fruits are as well a superior foundation of pectin - a dietary fiber. Guava leaves are abundant in quercetin flavonoid of which the curative influences of is attributed. Quercetin is thought to contribute to the anti-diarrhea effect of guava; it is able to relax intestinal smooth muscle and inhibit bowel contractions. In addition, other flavonoids and triterpenes in guava leaves show antispasmodic activity. Guava also has antioxidant properties which is attributed to the polyphenols found in the leaves.

Chemicals found in the main plant of guavas includes: alanine, alpha-humulene, alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-selinene, amritoside, araban, arabinose, arabopyranosides, arjunolic acid, aromadendrene, ascorbic acid, ascorbigen, asiatic acid, aspartic acid, avicularin, benzaldehyde, butanal, carotenoids, caryophyllene, catechol-tannins, crataegolic acid, D-galactose, D-galacturonic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl octanoate, essential oils, flavonoids, gallic acid, glutamic acid, goreishic acid, guafine, guavacoumaric acid, guaijavarin, guajiverine, guajivolic acid, guajavolide, guavenoic acid, guajavanoic acid, histidine, hyperin, ilelatifol D, isoneriucoumaric acid, isoquercetin, jacoumaric acid, lectins, leucocyanidins, limonene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lysine, mecocyanin, myricetin, myristic acid, nerolidiol, obtusinin, octanol, oleanolic acid, oleic acid, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, pectin, polyphenols, psidiolic acid, quercetin, quercitrin, serine, sesquiguavene, tannins, terpenes, and ursolic acid.

Nutritional value of guava differs greatly on the species. Strawberry guava is remarkably contains 30-40 mg of vitamin C every 100 g serving which posses a higher proportion of the Dietary Reference Intake.

The major classes of antioxidant pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols can also be found in guava making them relatively high dietary antioxidant importance. These pigments generates the fruit color which also implies that red and orange guava offer additional capability as antioxidant resources.

Nutrients of apple guava per 100g serving;
• Calories 36-50
• Moisture 77-86
• Dietary fiber 2.8-5.5 g
• Protein 0.9-1.0 g
• Fat 0.1-0.5 g
• Ash 0.43-0.7 g
• Carbohydrates 9.5-10 g
• Calcium 9.1-17 mg
• Phosphorus 17.8-30 mg
• Iron 0.30-0.70 mg
• Carotene Vit. A – 200-400 IU
• Ascorbic Acid Vit. C – 200-400 mg
• Thiamin Vit. B1 – 0.046 mg
• Riboflavin Vit. B2 – 0.03-0.04 mg
• Niacin Vit. B3 – 0.6-1.068 mg

Constituents and pharmacological characteristics of the guava fruit had been a subject on various research since 1950 but is focus only on Apple Guava. As presented on these studies, extracts from leaves of Apple guava or its barks presented a curative effects against cancer, bacterial infections, inflammation and pain. It leaves also contains essential oil which is shown to be a very potent anti-cancer.

In folk medicine, guava leaves and barks are applied as a cure for diarrhea, diabetes, and as astringent due to its antimicrobial influences. These astringent which binds up slack bowels in diarrhea are compounds that make gums feel tighter and fresh. It is alkaline in nature and is disinfectant and anti-bacterial traits, thus aid in curing dysentery by restraining microbial development and eliminating extra mucus from the intestines. Other nutrients in guava, like vitamin-C, carotenoids and potassium fortifies and tones up the digestive system and purify its infections. These traits also offer beneficial influences on gastroenenteritis.

Guava also contains quercetin an antioxidant that impedes enzymes which are accountable for the generation of sorbitol, the sugar that makes up the foggy white clusters that cause cataracts. Folate content in guava is also beneficial in fighting bad breath that causes gum infections like gingivitis.

  • Effective in curing infertility in male influenced by sperm clumping, adhesion and some irregularities due to its vitamin C content.
  • Also correlated in the treatment of wounds and fractures when applies externally.
  • Guava has general haemostatic properties and can be used for treating bleeding nose, gums and minor internal hemorrhaging.
  • Guava helps the body in combating free radicals produced during metabolism and aids in preventing age-related chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, cataract and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Guava is one of the richest sources of dietary fiber and thus, is good for those suffering from constipation.
  • Guava, having high content of roughage, no cholesterol & less digestible carbohydrates, is good for those trying to lose weight.
  • Guavas can improve the texture of skin and help avoid skin problems. It can be taken raw or by washing the skin with its decocted immature fruits and leaves.
  • Juice of raw and immature guavas or decoction of guava-leaves is known to bring relief in cough and cold.
  • Research have shown that guava is pretty effective in preventing cancer and even heart diseases in people.
  • The presence of complex carbohydrates and dietary fibers in guava makes it effective in lowering cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
  • The presence of Vitamin C and other phytonutrients, such as caretenoids, isoffavonoids and polyphenols, in guava has led to it being an effective antioxidant.

Medicinal traits of guava also offers curing influences of the following;
  • Acidosis
  • Asthma
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Catarrh
  • Congestion of the Lungs
  • Convulsions
  • Epilepsy
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Obesity
  • Oral Ulcers
  • Poor Circulation
  • Prolonged Menstruation
  • Scurvy
  • Swollen Gums
  • Toothache

Performance accounted on guavas
  • Amebicide
  • Analgesic (pain-reliever)
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticandidal
  • Antidysenteric
  • Antifungal
  • Antimalarial
  • Antioxidant
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antiulcerous
  • Cardiodepressant
  • Cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart)
  • Central nervous system depressant
  • Cough suppressant
  • Gastrototonic (tones, balances, strengthens the gastric tract)
  • Hypotensive (lowers blood pressure)
  • Sedative
  • Vasoconstrictor

Brazilian researchers stated that extracts of guava leaves presented a numerous influences on the cardiovascular system which might be advantage in curing abnormal heat beat. Other conducted research had shown that guava leaves offers antioxidant influences to the heart that includes protection and enhances myocardial performance. The consumption studies of guava fruit portrayed an effects of reducing blood pressure at an average of 8 points. Reduce total cholesterol level by 9%, reduced triglycerides by 8% and raises HDL cholesterol which is the good ones for 8% in a period of 12 weeks. The upshots were attributed to the high content of potassium and soluble fiber of the fruit. In some animal studies, extracts of guava leaves presented a confirmations as analgesic, sedative, central nervous system depressant activity, and as cough suppressant.

Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*
Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05)>Source: PubMed Central

Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajavaleaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release.
Source: PubMed Central

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