Wednesday, February 17, 2010


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Jambul is a fruit of various medicinal uses which is known in the Philippines as “Duhat”. Its botanical name is a common name in the country which is often ignored by others due to lack and absence of proper information drive. This herbal fruit is a medicinal plants and a medicinal herbs.

Its fruit just dropped on ground and is gathered as waste. Jambul tree is now considered rare because its existence in the market is not like of those popular fruits. Traders never give too much attention on trading this fruit because it is ignored by most buyers but its existence is widely spread towards the country.

Jambul tree is a fruit tree which is native in South Asia and regions of Australia. It fruit produce are mainstream instance of a curative plant having twofold purpose. It is used as source of food and for herbal medicines. The fruit is consumed with delight in various place when ripe which offer smells and taste like apricot. The seeds and the fruit of the jambul tree offer a robust astringent and carminative property.

Population of the tree grows largely on humid forests in India, Indonesia, and large parts of Africa. Jambul tree is commercially grown for its medicinal applications. The tree is broadcasted through its stored seed extracted from it ripe cuttings and it requires superior contact to sunlight and a drained soil to flourish. The fruits ripen fully in the fall, and are harvested before winter.

The jambul is a very flexible kind of plant, and broadly exist in various humid weather conditions having diverse ecological procedures. It definitely struggle on various type of fertile land which flourish at pace on lowlands, wet, high, drained lands. It can also flourish on loamy soils, marl, sandy soils as well as soils having a shrill calcareous element.

The tree offers a favorable and abundant growth in heavily rainfall areas. Jambul trees can struggle prolonged flood and is defiant to water logging of the soil. The mature jambul tree is also tolerant of drought and water scarce soils, managing quite nicely in well drained soils and semi-arid places. The favorable development of jambul trees with respect to altitude is from sea-level up to six thousand ft or eighteen hundred meters, however, the tree will not fruit when grown at altitudes above two thousand ft or six hundred meters - at these heights the tree is grown mainly as a timber source.

In its flowering and fruiting stage, the onset of dry season is enviable but is not required. The young and tender jambul trees are rather sensitive to frost; however, older stands of trees remained largely unaffected by brief spells of below freezing temperatures as seen in southern Florida in the US. As far as altitude is concerned, the jambul grows relatively better at higher, well-drained lands in loamy, marl, sand or oolitic limestone soils than it does on wet lowland soils.


Jambul consists of the following vitamins and minerals;




Vitamin C

Vitamin B Complex

The fruit bears the food value as follows;

Moisture 83.7%

Protein 0.7%

Fat 0.3%

Fiber 0.4%

Minerals 0.9%

Carbohydrates 14.0%

Jambul is among the various fruits which bears importance on medicines throughout the world. It has a distinctive capability to reduce towering blood sugar rates in the body particularly those who are diabetic and hyperglycemic persons. It is highly recommended by herbalist as remedy to frustrate the harmful influences of long term diabetes, where the islet cells in the pancreas never generate adequate supply of insulin – an enzyme which supports entering of glucose towards cells which is accountable for the management and control of body glucose rates. Various individual in the modern world are vulnerable to type II diabetes due to its way of life and nutritional practices. Jambul medication is much efficient on the early phases of the ailment, particularly when it is firmly accompanied dietary routine by the influenced individual.

Jambul fruit can be taken raw, preserved and created in to sauces, tarts, and jams. The jambul fruits are fermented into wine in the Indian state of Goa as well as the Philippines. Jambul is a vital source of wine, and the various kind of purified liquids, brandy as well as the "jambava" are all products of the fermented fruit of the jambul tree. The honey produced by bees from the flowers of the jambul is of fine quality and jambul flowers typically have abundant nectar in them - thus making them good apiary plants.


Towering blood sugar levels are reduced by the fresh seeds of jambul, which made the fruit valuable in the medication of metabolic discomforts such as diabetes and related blood sugar difficulties.

Some components are seen in jambul have a stout and affirmative influence on pancreas. It thwarts the adaptation of starch into bad sugar, thus managing the blood sugar rates. Fruit seeds can be dried and pulverize then taken with water. The resulting liquid of its pulverized seed is also a good ease of thirst and also avoid too much urination - which is one of the symptoms of diabetes.

Tree bark is also applied as cure for diabetes. It dried out entirely then burn into a white-colored ash which is taken. In Ayurveda, a diabetic person is provided around two grams of this ash in the morning on an empty stomach and two grams each in the afternoon and in the evening - an hour after meals.

Jambul is ideal in the medication of diabetes because of the elements found with it. Jambul seeds contains Glucoside, Jamboline and Ellagic acid. Its fruit contains resin, albumen, gallic acid, essential oil and tonic acid.


The jambul herb is claimed to possess diuretic, astringent, stomachic, carminative and anti-scorbutic influences in herbal medication.

Alleviates Acute or Chronic Diarrhea

Fruits that have been cooked into a jam alleviates acute or chronic diarrhea In Indian herbal remedy, juice of the ripened jambul fruit or an herbal decoction created from the fruit, or even vinegar prepared from the jambul is directed to individuals influenced by unceasing diarrhea, urinary retention or a swelling of the spleen.

Sore Throat

Sore throat is cured by the application of water diluted juice extracted from jambul fruit. Infestations of ringworm towards scalp and skin is treated by application of lotion created from jambul fruit.


Dysentery can be effectively treated using the extracted juice from the leaves, this remedy can be used by itself or employed in combination with the juice of the mango or emblic leaves.

Skin Diseases

Various kinds of skin ailments can be cured by the application of jambul leaves made into an herbal poultice. It noticed that extract from leaves, stems, flower and its opened blossom possess a powerful antibiotic effect.

Promotes Proper Digestion

Digestive disorders like dyspepsia and diarrhea can be treated with jambul bark by means of herbal decoction its bark and take it prior to every meal. It is also used as an enema solution. The bark peeled from the roots is also used in the same way for treating similar disorders.

Treatment for Asthma and Bronchitis

Jambul bark decoction is used in medication for asthma and bronchitis cases. The solution is also used as a gargle because it possesses an astringent influence which is valuable in dealing with ulceration in the mouth, spongy gums, and stomatitis in affected patients. Local inflammation on the body is curing by the application of its bark ashes that has been combined with water. The bark ash combined with oil is also applied to burns as a calming and curative herbal rub.

Cure for Dandruff

Seborrheic Dermatitis, Cradle Cap, Seborrhea and Seborrheic eczema are the other names of dandruff. Dandruff is driven by a frequent yeast cell which causes an inflammation of the scalp, making it shed flakes. Rubbing the scalp with the extracts of jambul seed is a very helpful resolve in treating the symptoms of dandruff. Jambul seed extracts are an alternative of clotrimozole or ketoconazole which are both known to its application as anti-fungal. It is also devoid of commonly existing unfavorable results correlated with these anti-fungal and is not as well hepatoxic.

Pulverized 5 to 10 Jambul seeds into a fine paste and apply this paste on the affected portion twice a day or for a period of one week. Dandruff problem is then resolved in the provided time frame.

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Friday, January 8, 2010


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Guava which is among the most sociable fruit trees of the myrtle species is universally recognized by its generic English name or its equivalent in other dialects. Its tree is known as guayabo or guayavo and its fruit is guayaba or guava in Spanish. French name it goyave or goyavier; the Dutch, guyaba, goeajaaba; the Surinamese, guave or goejaba; and the Portuguese, goiaba or goaibeira. Hawaiians call it guava or kuawa. In Guam it is abas. In Malaya, it is generally known either as guava or jambu batu, but has also numerous dialectal names as it does in India, tropical Africa and the Philippines, the fruit and its tree is referred to as bayabas.

Guavas are propagated in various tropical and subtropical states for their edible fruit. Various classess are cultivated for commercial purposes which renders Apple Guava and its cultivars are those regularly traded globally. Adult trees of most classes can sustain as freezing climate at 5 deg C for a limited time compared to younger ones. Guavas can be grown in pots indoors, the reason that is brought enthusiast to home growers.

In some countries in Asia, guava fruit is taken raw and is associated with a pinch of salt and pepper. It's a well-known nibble for students, having street vendors selling each for a couple of rupees outside schools and colleges and is as well prepared as a desert in a form of fruit salads. In Asia, fresh guava slices are often dipped in preserved prune powder or salt. In India it is often sprinkled with red rock salt, which is very tart.

Guavas are extensively used to make candies, jellies, jams, marmalades, and juices due to its high content of pectin. "Red" guavas can be utilized as the base of salted products like sauces, make up an alternative for tomatoes, particularly for those receptive to the latter's acidity. In Asia, a drink is made from an infusion of guava fruits and leaves and is considered medicine.

This rich-nutrient fruit are usually traded as “superfruit” due to its vitamins and mineral contents. Among those nutrient contents are vitamin A and vitamin C. It seeds are abundant in omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and particularly dietary fiber. A piece of guava contains four times the vitamin C of orange and is as well has an ideal level of dietary minerals like folate, potassium, magnesium.

Tannins, phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, vitamins, fiber and fatty acids are the chemicals found rich in guava. Guava fruits are as well a superior foundation of pectin - a dietary fiber. Guava leaves are abundant in quercetin flavonoid of which the curative influences of is attributed. Quercetin is thought to contribute to the anti-diarrhea effect of guava; it is able to relax intestinal smooth muscle and inhibit bowel contractions. In addition, other flavonoids and triterpenes in guava leaves show antispasmodic activity. Guava also has antioxidant properties which is attributed to the polyphenols found in the leaves.

Chemicals found in the main plant of guavas includes: alanine, alpha-humulene, alpha-hydroxyursolic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-selinene, amritoside, araban, arabinose, arabopyranosides, arjunolic acid, aromadendrene, ascorbic acid, ascorbigen, asiatic acid, aspartic acid, avicularin, benzaldehyde, butanal, carotenoids, caryophyllene, catechol-tannins, crataegolic acid, D-galactose, D-galacturonic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl octanoate, essential oils, flavonoids, gallic acid, glutamic acid, goreishic acid, guafine, guavacoumaric acid, guaijavarin, guajiverine, guajivolic acid, guajavolide, guavenoic acid, guajavanoic acid, histidine, hyperin, ilelatifol D, isoneriucoumaric acid, isoquercetin, jacoumaric acid, lectins, leucocyanidins, limonene, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, lysine, mecocyanin, myricetin, myristic acid, nerolidiol, obtusinin, octanol, oleanolic acid, oleic acid, oxalic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, pectin, polyphenols, psidiolic acid, quercetin, quercitrin, serine, sesquiguavene, tannins, terpenes, and ursolic acid.

Nutritional value of guava differs greatly on the species. Strawberry guava is remarkably contains 30-40 mg of vitamin C every 100 g serving which posses a higher proportion of the Dietary Reference Intake.

The major classes of antioxidant pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols can also be found in guava making them relatively high dietary antioxidant importance. These pigments generates the fruit color which also implies that red and orange guava offer additional capability as antioxidant resources.

Nutrients of apple guava per 100g serving;
• Calories 36-50
• Moisture 77-86
• Dietary fiber 2.8-5.5 g
• Protein 0.9-1.0 g
• Fat 0.1-0.5 g
• Ash 0.43-0.7 g
• Carbohydrates 9.5-10 g
• Calcium 9.1-17 mg
• Phosphorus 17.8-30 mg
• Iron 0.30-0.70 mg
• Carotene Vit. A – 200-400 IU
• Ascorbic Acid Vit. C – 200-400 mg
• Thiamin Vit. B1 – 0.046 mg
• Riboflavin Vit. B2 – 0.03-0.04 mg
• Niacin Vit. B3 – 0.6-1.068 mg

Constituents and pharmacological characteristics of the guava fruit had been a subject on various research since 1950 but is focus only on Apple Guava. As presented on these studies, extracts from leaves of Apple guava or its barks presented a curative effects against cancer, bacterial infections, inflammation and pain. It leaves also contains essential oil which is shown to be a very potent anti-cancer.

In folk medicine, guava leaves and barks are applied as a cure for diarrhea, diabetes, and as astringent due to its antimicrobial influences. These astringent which binds up slack bowels in diarrhea are compounds that make gums feel tighter and fresh. It is alkaline in nature and is disinfectant and anti-bacterial traits, thus aid in curing dysentery by restraining microbial development and eliminating extra mucus from the intestines. Other nutrients in guava, like vitamin-C, carotenoids and potassium fortifies and tones up the digestive system and purify its infections. These traits also offer beneficial influences on gastroenenteritis.

Guava also contains quercetin an antioxidant that impedes enzymes which are accountable for the generation of sorbitol, the sugar that makes up the foggy white clusters that cause cataracts. Folate content in guava is also beneficial in fighting bad breath that causes gum infections like gingivitis.

  • Effective in curing infertility in male influenced by sperm clumping, adhesion and some irregularities due to its vitamin C content.
  • Also correlated in the treatment of wounds and fractures when applies externally.
  • Guava has general haemostatic properties and can be used for treating bleeding nose, gums and minor internal hemorrhaging.
  • Guava helps the body in combating free radicals produced during metabolism and aids in preventing age-related chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, cataract and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Guava is one of the richest sources of dietary fiber and thus, is good for those suffering from constipation.
  • Guava, having high content of roughage, no cholesterol & less digestible carbohydrates, is good for those trying to lose weight.
  • Guavas can improve the texture of skin and help avoid skin problems. It can be taken raw or by washing the skin with its decocted immature fruits and leaves.
  • Juice of raw and immature guavas or decoction of guava-leaves is known to bring relief in cough and cold.
  • Research have shown that guava is pretty effective in preventing cancer and even heart diseases in people.
  • The presence of complex carbohydrates and dietary fibers in guava makes it effective in lowering cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
  • The presence of Vitamin C and other phytonutrients, such as caretenoids, isoffavonoids and polyphenols, in guava has led to it being an effective antioxidant.

Medicinal traits of guava also offers curing influences of the following;
  • Acidosis
  • Asthma
  • Bacterial Infections
  • Catarrh
  • Congestion of the Lungs
  • Convulsions
  • Epilepsy
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Obesity
  • Oral Ulcers
  • Poor Circulation
  • Prolonged Menstruation
  • Scurvy
  • Swollen Gums
  • Toothache

Performance accounted on guavas
  • Amebicide
  • Analgesic (pain-reliever)
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticandidal
  • Antidysenteric
  • Antifungal
  • Antimalarial
  • Antioxidant
  • Antispasmodic
  • Antiulcerous
  • Cardiodepressant
  • Cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart)
  • Central nervous system depressant
  • Cough suppressant
  • Gastrototonic (tones, balances, strengthens the gastric tract)
  • Hypotensive (lowers blood pressure)
  • Sedative
  • Vasoconstrictor

Brazilian researchers stated that extracts of guava leaves presented a numerous influences on the cardiovascular system which might be advantage in curing abnormal heat beat. Other conducted research had shown that guava leaves offers antioxidant influences to the heart that includes protection and enhances myocardial performance. The consumption studies of guava fruit portrayed an effects of reducing blood pressure at an average of 8 points. Reduce total cholesterol level by 9%, reduced triglycerides by 8% and raises HDL cholesterol which is the good ones for 8% in a period of 12 weeks. The upshots were attributed to the high content of potassium and soluble fiber of the fruit. In some animal studies, extracts of guava leaves presented a confirmations as analgesic, sedative, central nervous system depressant activity, and as cough suppressant.

Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*
Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05)>Source: PubMed Central

Effects of two medicinal plants Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Diospyros mespiliformis L. (Ebenaceae) leaf extracts on rat skeletal muscle cells in primary culture

Crude decoction, aqueous and ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants (Psidium guajava and Diospyros mespiliformis), widely used in the central plateau of Burkina Faso to treat many diseases were evaluated for their antagonistic effects on caffeine induced calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat skeletal muscle cells. These different extracts showed a decrease of caffeine induced calcium release in a dose dependent manner. Comparison of the results showed that Psidium guajavaleaf extracts are more active than extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis and that crude decoctions show better inhibitory activity. The observed results could explaine their use as antihypertensive and antidiarrhoeal agents in traditional medicine, by inhibiting intracellular calcium release.
Source: PubMed Central

Sunday, January 3, 2010



Dubbed as the “forbidden fruit” bearing the name “shaddock”. Grapefruit is known to its vinegary fruit, a fruit of a subtropical citrus tree. The tree of a grapefruit is evergreen which are typically seen at about 5 to 6 meter high and can reach up to 15 meters. It leaves tenders the color of dark green and thin. The fruit is skinned and large which bears the oblate shape and yellow-orange in color. The fruit flesh vary in color, it could be white, pink, and red pulps which all varies in sweetness depending on its class.

This sharp and tasty fruit is largely produce by the United States with its orchard at Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California. The fruit is also known as toronja or pomelo in Spanish.

Grapefruit has underlying sweetness and juiciness that competes the popular orange and some various health promoting fruits. Grapefruit is available all the year but its best fall on its season from winter to early spring.

Grapefruit bestows various health advantages more than its capacity to drop weights. It is loaded with many nutritional goodies producing a piling quantity of vitamin C, folic acid, beta-carotene, and potassium which are all significant in protecting somebody’s heart. Pink grapefruit is fairly abundant in anti-oxidants and ruby red color offers an additional lycopene – a phytochemical which helps in avoiding LDL or bad cholesterol from oxidizing and impairing artery walls.

Pectin which is a form of soluble fiber which according to some studies helps in slowing down the evolution of atherosclerosis is also present in grapefruit.

According to some studies, taking a dosage of three 6-ounce grapefruit juice a day was seen to decrease the performance of an enzyme that stimulates tobacco chemical in causing cancer.

Grapefruit has an active substance known as naringenin and flavonoids. Naringenin substance helps in losing weight and flavonoids produces the bitter flavor of the fruit and hinders the consumption of fatty acids towards human cells and avert bodies from effectively utilizing carbohydrates.

Calories in grapefruit
California pink or red grapefruit – 46 calories
Arizona pink or red grapefruit – 46 calories
Florida pink or red grapefruit – 37 calories
California white grapefruit - 44 calories
Florida white grapefruit – 38 calories

Seed extract of grapefruit had been claimed to be an effective antimicrobial with confirmed performance opposing bacteria and fungi. But this clinical studies has not demonstrated its effect as anti microbial. GSE or grapefruit seed extract is endorsed as a vastly useful plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies shows that the universal antimicrobial performance correlated with GSE measures is simply due to infectivity with artificial preservatives.

Discovered in 1989, grapefruit has the ability to raise the effects of drugs by increasing the power of its potent compounds. It contains naringenin, bergamottin and dihydroxybergamottin, which slows down the protein isoform CYP3A4 in the intestine. It is through inhibition of this enzyme that grapefruit raises the upshots of drugs. However, the application must be properly supervise to avoid overdosing of medications.

Grapefruit not only offers great taste but also possess various medicinal characteristics which help in struggling diabetes by carrying down the blood glucose rate within a time frame of three days. But grapefruit diet is not sufficient to take down diabetes. One must consume additional fruit s and vegetables.

As recommended by some nutritionists, consumption of at least three servings of grapefruit a day is a must to anyone suffering from the wrath of diabetes. Because it consumption will be use as pre-emptive measure in struggling high blood sugar rates, particularly when applied in combination with a low fat, low-sugar, low-starch nutrition. The effects of this nutrition for diabetic patients will be experienced in less than three months.

The existence of naringenin and flavonoid in grapefruit makes it valuable for diabetic person. One symptom and indication of diabetes is overweight. Naringenin and flavonoid found in grapefruit lets the liver burn fats instead of storing it. Possibly, a dose of naringenin could avert in gaining weight without the need of altering nutrition and diets or cutting out particular foods. Naringenin is extremely effective in struggling diabetes principally due to its aptitudes which helps in balancing insulin and the glucose rates in human body.

Minimal alterations in the ways of life like keeping a health body weight, being bodily active and taking a balanced nutrition can support in decreasing the hazards of forming Type 2 Diabetes.


A Powerhouse of Vitamin C
As an excellent foundation of vitamin C, it supports in maintaining a good immune system. Vitamin C is proven by various researches to be cold-fighter. It also averts the free radical impairment which activates inflammatory cascade which correlated with the decreased rated of inflammatory situations like asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Vitamin C is also beneficial in advancing cardiovascular health.

Vitamin-C is a powerful natural anti-oxidant and helps body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful free radicals; also is required for the maintenance of normal connective tissue as well for wound healing. It also facilitates dietary iron absorption from the intestine.

Antioxidant Lycopene
Lycope on grapefruit is an anti-tumor substance. It has the superior ability to combat free radical oxygen which is compounds in impairing body cells. A regular consumption of the fruit, may greatly decrease the hazards of acquiring prostate cancer, as published by the Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Encourages Favorable Health
Phytonutrients in grapefruit known as limonoids restrain tumor development by encouraging the structure of glutathione-S-transferase, a detoxifying enzyme. This enzyme glimmers a response within the liver which helps in producing noxious compounds more water soluble for emission from the body. Citrus pulp like grapefruit contain glucarates, compounds that may help prevent breast cancer.

The persistence and bioavailability of Limonin are potential substance which could help in the prevention of cancerous cells from reproducing.

• Delicious, grapefruits are very low in calories but rich in dietary insoluble fiber, pectin which by acting as bulk laxative helps to protect the colon mucous membrane by decreasing exposure time to toxic substances in the colon as well as binding to cancer causing chemicals in the colon.
• Pectin has also been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels by decreasing re-absorption of cholesterol binding bile acids in the colon.
• It contains very good levels of vitamin-A and flavonoid antioxidants such as naringenin, beta carotene, xanthin and lutein. Studies suggest that these compounds have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision.
• Vitamin A also required maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A and flavonoids helps to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
• Fresh fruit is very rich in potassium. Potassium in an important component of cell and body fluids, helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.
• Red varieties of grapefruits are especially rich in the most powerful flavonoid antioxidant, lycopene. Studies have shown that lycopene protects skin damage from UV rays and offers protection against prostate cancer.



Garlic is an indigenous plant in the central Asia and is originated in China, having grass-like leaves and flimsy covering surrounding its flowers which also called as Allium sativum. Widely grown as herbal plants which belongs to the onion family and is noted in the application of both culinary and medicine. When pressed, it released strong and pungent scents which could let make a person tears out. It bears the standing influential medicinal traits. The consumable portion of the garlic which is the heads grows underground. The heads consists of divided sections known as cloves, each wrapped on its own covering.

The application of garlic for food culinary and medicine had been conducted thousands of years ago, dating back from the construction of Giza pyramids.

In the institution of Korea as a nation, it has been told that gods had provided mortal women bear and tiger personality an immortal black garlic mating which in belief renders women a supernatural powers an immortality.

The most common classes of garlic grown for commercial production in the Philippines is the Ilocos White. It has purple to white scales which is fairly resistant to insect pests and diseases. It reaches its maturity on the 90 to 110 day after its propagation which offers a possible harvest of 3.5 tons every hectare. This type of garlic has the extended shelf life.

Another type is the Tan Bolters which not totally suggested for commercial production because its production performance is not confirmed. It presents lager clove compared to Ilocos White and also has a superior keeping quality that reaches its maturity on the 105 to 120 days after propagation.

Some assortments like Batanes White, Batangas White, Ilocos Pink, and Nueva Ecija Pink are accessible in the Philippine market but is likewise not formally suggested for commercial production.

It is hard to make up a tasty dish with comprising garlic as one of its element. Every garlic clove does offers surprises to various foods, stirring and enliven its tang. Garlic is abundantly applied in some western cuisine and beside its culinary application it as well promptly utilized as medicinal herb.

In the ancient times, Egyptians initiated the medicinal traits of the plants. They used it to cure wounds, infections, tumors, and instestinal parasites and dubbed it as great protector of human body. Methodical studies in modern age confirms these ancient application and uses of garlic, involving its aptitude to lesser the cholesterol level and blood pressure. The sulphur content of garlic offers the herb its spicy aroma taste and is accountable for various healing traits.

The question usually posed is what would be the ideal type of garlic to use. Raw or lightly cooked garlic contains a potent array of sulphur compounds which give garlic its healing properties; however these also lend garlic its pungent taste. But whichever form you choose, just go for it and see how this miracle nutrient seasons not only your food but also your life.

Among the nutrients contained in garlic are the following;
• Manganese
• Vitamin B6
• Vitamin C
• Protein
• Thiamin
• Phosphorus
• Selenium
• Calcium
• Potassium
• Iron
• Copper
• Amino acid

Garlic’s health advantages and curative traits have been known since the ancient times and has been considered as “wonder drug” having the reputation in folklore application ranging from common cold or flu to high blood pressure. Some folklore applications of garlic include treatment for acne and as a mosquito repellant.

This wonder drug aids digestion, alleviates earache, works as an expectorant and as an antiseptic. It also raises the discharge of urine thus eliminating worms inside the body. Its aptitude to eject mucous by liquefying it, can help control cold, cough and some respiratory tract infections. This astounding herb has also portrayed the ability to shelter opposing the large array of environmental toxins. Sulphur compounds in garlic are a powerful antioxidant that guard cell membrane and DNA from impairment.

These compounds lower cholesterol by stimulating the release of bile by the gall bladder and by decreasing the production of cholesterol in the liver. In addition, garlic compounds gently lower blood pressure by slowing the production of hormones related to blood pressure.

Garlic is also credited with anti-oxidants that supports in combating cancer and cancerous tumors. Medical science has provided evidences that garlic contains compounds like diallye disulphide and s-allycystein, which have anti-tumor properties that help in slowing down the development of tumors and also decreases their size.

Any kind of heart ailments are prevented by the compound seen in garlic. It helps in lowering the cholesterol level in blood, which in turn makes sure there is nothing to block the arteries. It helps keep the aorta of the heart flexible and enables it to pump the blood effectively.

A chemical which is referred to as Ajoene which is found in garlic helps in thinning the blood that reduce clot formation thus preventing hypertention or high blood pressure. Garlic was used in ancient China to treat people suffering from angina attacks and poor circulation.

Garlic also contain compounds that restrain lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase an enzyme that generate inflammatory prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Together with its vitamin C content, these anti-inflammatory compounds make it very valuable in protect against harsh invasion of asthma and may as well reduce the pain and inflammation of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Allicin which is among the sulfur compound in garlic is responsible for its odor and is a potent antibacterial and antiviral agent that unites forces with vitamin C in eliminating injurious microbes. This compound is proven by some research studies to be effective not only on some common infections like colds, flu, stomach viruses, and candida yeast, but is powerful as well in pathogenic microbes including tuberculosis and botulism. Allicin also prevent weight gain.

Asbestos is a popular carcinogen which is thought to cause cell mutations by producing oxygen species or free radicals that depletes the most essential antioxidants in the body which is glutathione. These antioxidants act as anti-carcinogen. In a laboratory study published in Toxicology Letters, garlic extract, when managed together with asbestos it shows to significantly lessened DNA mutations in human blood lymphocytes, these provided researchers the conclusion that garlic extract might be an efficient and physiologically bearable quencher of asbestos-induced genotoxicity.

Garlic also generates an enzyme known as nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme needed to acquire erection. Thus making garlic an effective aphrodisiacs which may be use in treating impotence. Garlic activates the synthesis of this enzyme in people who have lesser levels of it.

Letting garlic be a part of the daily nutrition of a person greatly reduces the hazard of various common cancers. A study from Southern European populations portrayed proofs for this ability.

Study participants taking the most garlic had a 39% decreased hazard for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, 57% decreased hazard for esophageal cancer, 26% decreased hazard for colorectal cancer, 44% decreased hazard for laryngeal cancer, 10% decrease hazard for breast cancer, 22% decreased hazard for ovarian cancer, 19% decreased hazard for prostate cancer, and 31% decreased hazard for renal cell cancer, compared to those eating the least garlic.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

A study conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, regarding the effects of garlic to cardiovascular risks and disease, protective effects against cancer, and clinical adverse effects.

Limited information, principally from case-control studies, recommend, but never confirm, dietary garlic ingestion is related with the reduced probability of laryngeal, gastric, colorectal, and endometrial cancer and adenomatous colorectal polyps. Single case-control studies recommend, but never confirm, dietary garlic digestion is not related with breast or prostate cancer. No epidemiological study has reviewed whether using particular types of garlic supplement is correlated in the decrease in cancer occurrence. Preliminary 3-year evidence from a large group study implies digestion of "any" garlic supplement does not lessen hazard of breast, lung, colon, or gastric cancer. This study has not reported connections applicable to digestion of fresh or raw garlic, and its data about increments are inadequate because data is not accessible about different types and brands of garlic supplementations.

Unpleasant effects of oral digestions of garlic are "smelly" breath and body odor. Some potential, but not confirm, unpleasant effects include flatulence, esophageal and abdominal pain, small intestinal obstruction, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, bleeding, and myocardial infarction. There are two reports of patients taking warfarin who encountered rises in International Normalized Ratio (INR) when taking garlic pearls or tablets. The content and method of preparation of the pearls and tablets were not provided. The occurrence of unpleasant results on the oral consumption of garlic and whether they differ by specific preparations were not confirmed. Unpleasant results of inhaled garlic dust include allergic responses like asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Unpleasant results of topical contact to raw garlic include dermatitis, skin blisters, and ulcero-necrotic lesions. Occurrence of responses to inhaled garlic dust or topical contacts of garlic were not confirmed.

There are inadequate information to sketch conclusions about effects of garlic on clinical cardiovascular outcomes like claudication and myocardial infarction. Garlic preparations may have small, positive, short-term motivations on lipids; whether effects are sustainable beyond 3 months is uncertain. Constant decreases in blood pressure with garlic were not seen, and no effects on glucose or insulin sensitivity were found. Some considerable effects on antithrombotic activity were accounted, but minor information is accessible for authoritative conclusion.

Application of any garlic increment for about 3 to 5 years were not related with declined hazards of breast, lung, gastric, colon, or rectal cancer. Some case-control researches recommend that superior nutritional garlic ingestion may be correlated with reduced hazards of laryngeal, gastric, colorectal, and endometrial cancers, and adenomatous colorectal polyps.

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Various extracts and elements acquired from garlic are capable to restrain Cu2+ - induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. Aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder as well as the aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves were studied. A study conducted by José Pedraza-Chaverrí, Mariana Gil-Ortiz, Gabriela Albarrán, Laura Barbachano-Esparza, Marta Menjívar, and Omar N Medina-Campos.

Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37 deg C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 6.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+ -chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test.
Source: PubMed

A study conducted at Discipline of General Practice and Discipline of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia regarding the effects of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: Searching the Medline and Embase databases for studies published between 1955 and October 2007. Randomised controlled trials with true placebo groups, using garlic-only preparations, and reporting mean systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and standard deviations were included in the meta-analysis. We also conducted subgroup meta-analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive), for the first time. Meta-regression analysis was performed to test the associations between blood pressure outcomes and duration of treatment, dosage, and blood pressure at start of treatment.

Results: Eleven of 25 studies included in the systematic review were suitable for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of all studies showed a mean decrease of 4.6 ± 2.8 mm Hg for SBP in the garlic group compared to placebo (n = 10; p = 0.001), while the mean decrease in the hypertensive subgroup was 8.4 ± 2.8 mm Hg for SBP (n = 4; p < n =" 3;" r =" 0.057;" p =" 0.03;" r =" -0.315;" p =" 0.02).">.
Source: PubMed


Friday, January 1, 2010



This plant which indigenously originated in Sri Lanka and Ceylon is popularly known to its prime application as spice. The plant is initially called as cassia or the Chinese cinnamon which acquired its name from Burma. What produces the spice is its scented bark. True Ceylonese cinnamon is much more luxurious than the cassia, and has a lighter and more fragile smell; the Burmese assortment is much spicy and has a stronger taste compared to the original cinnamon. As a flavoring agent, cinnamon is chosen for spicing up sweet dishes and baked goods such as breads, cakes and pastries. While the cassia due to its strong flavor that nips the taste buds is used more often to spice meats, and pilaus - dishes made from rice or cracked wheat with boiled meat and spices, the cassia is also favored to spice up various curries due to its strong pungency. The initial application of cinnamon as medicine was done by Moses as a major element in the holy anointing oil which is used in anointing his people.

This famous spice is considered valuable than gold due to its medicinal importance that is taking a large attendance to various pharmaceutical companies.

Magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and potassium are among the nutritional significance of cinnamon. It also has a superior quantity of sodium, iron and manganese and a lesser existence of zinc, copper and selenium. Cinnamon is also opulent in choline and has a superior quantity of vitamin A, C, E, Niacin and Betaine with a lesser amount of vitamin K, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid. Every 100g cinnamon contains 247 calories.

Diabetes roots body cells to drop their capacity to react on insulin, the hormone that notifies the body to eliminate extra glucose in the bloodstream. If glucose accumulates in the blood it causes tiredness, weight-loss and blurred vision. If these symptoms are not treated immediately, this can lead to blindness, heart disease and premature death.

According to some studies and clinical reviews, cinnamon may enhance blood glucose and cholesterol rates in type 2 diabetes sufferers. The study was conducted in Pakistan which reveals that after 40 days of cinnamon application, lesser rates of fasting glucose, triglycerides, LDL, and cholesterol had observed.

The cinnamon’s influence on blood sugar is a vital support in the combat opposing obesity, insulin resistance which commonly referred to as “pre-diabetes” and the “Metabollic Syndrome”

A consumption of ½ teaspoon of cinnamon a day may help in enhancing insulin sensitivity and blood glucose control which are the onset of type 2 diabetes. These findings may offer pleasure to individual who take action on low-carb nutrition due to diabetes. Enhancing insulin resistance aides in controlling body mass and dimension as well as reducing the hazards of acquiring heart ailments.

What makes cinnamon vital for diabetes is its MHCP substance. MHCP stands for MethylHydroxyChalcone Polymer. MHCP is a water-soluble polyphenol substance that works the same with exercise, it increases the glycogen content of muscle and liver cells. MHCP performs like an insulin. In this consideration, MHCP and insulin are synergistic because their total influence when both perform is highly superior compared to their individual influences. Its performance is not only focus on augmenting glycogen rates in muscle and liver tissue but it also helps in normalizing blood sugar levels which is the input of every diabetes medication. MHCP decreases blood glucose rates not only with the existence of insulin but even in its complete absence it performs very well like insulin itself.

Superiorly, cinnamon possesses high anti-oxidant activity. Its oil has potent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal traits. Provide a vast foundation of manganese, fiber, iron, and calcium. As a result of scientific studies regarding its efficacy on health, it is confirmed as treatment of the following:

• Supports digestive function & calms intestinal inflammation
• Constricts and tones tissues
• Relieves congestion
• Relieves pain and stiffness of muscles and joints
• Relieves menstrual discomfort
• Has blood thinning components that stimulate circulation
• Anti-inflammatory compounds that may relieve arthritis
• Attacks urinary tract infections, tooth decay and gum disease
• Antimicrobial and can kill E. coli
• Improves memory
• Boost brain function
• Anti-clotting and anti-microbial
• Excellent remedy for colds and cough
• Fights cancer





Among the world’s most mystical and wonderful trees is the cocoa tree. Its class theobroma cacao, normally construed, “food of the gods” or factually. “God food.” Theobroma class has many associates, like astheobroma but only theobroma is used for the production of chocolate.

The father of modern day taxonomic plant Carolus Linnaeus categorized theobroma cacao to be related to cocoa tree. Its name was released in his form work Systema Naturae in the mid-1700s. While cocoa trading is hardly available at that time, it may be more than a chance that he applied such a name to a plant that would have such a considerable future in world history.

Cacao is naturally known as raw chocolate. The seeds of a fruit of an Amazonian tree that was brought to Central America during or before the time of the Olmecs. Cacao beans were so revered by the Mayans and Aztecs that they used them as money!

In 1753 Carl con Linnaeus, a Swedish scientist believed that cacao was so essential that he named the genus and of this tree himself. He named this tree: Theobroma cacao, which literally means "cacao, the food of the gods."

Cacao beans contains no sugar and has 12% and 50% fat depending on its assortments and growth progress. There were no proofs to associate cacao bean ingestion with fatness.

Cacao appears to be the principal source of magnesium and sulfur, the reason why majority of women long for chocolate in their monthly menstrual period. Magnesium balances brain chemistry, constructs stout bones, and is coupled with extra happiness. Magnesium is the most scarce key mineral on the Standard American Diet (SAD)- over 80% of Americans are constantly scarce in Magnesium.

Cacao is excellent in the beauty mineral sulfur. Sulfur develops tough nails, hair, shiny skin, detoxifies the liver, which assist healthy pancreas performance. Subjective statements point out that cacao detoxifies mercury since it is so abundant in sulfur.

Cacao has slight quantity of natural caffeine and theobromine. However, studies have revealed that these tonics are far taken raw than cooked.

Cacao appears to reduce hunger, possibly because of its monoamine oxidase enzyme inhibitors (MAO inhibitors). These are different from digestive enzyme inhibitors seen in most nuts and seeds. MAO inhibitors facilitate being youth and transformation.

Phenylethylamine (PEA) is seen in chocolate. PEA is an adrenal-related substance that is also formed inside the brain and discharged as person get in love. This is one of the causes why love and chocolate have a profound connection. PEA as well performs a function in raising concentration and attentiveness.

A neurotransmitter known as anandamide has been extracted in cacao. Anandamide is also generated naturally in the brain. Anandamide is identified as the 'Bliss Chemical' because it is discharged while the person is feeling great. Cacao has enzyme inhibitors that reduce human body’s capability to crackdown anandamide. This implies that the normal or cacao anandamide may attach around longer, letting as person feels better whenever it consumes cacao.

Current research stated that a ratio of 1:500 people who believe they were allergic to chocolate actually tested positive. Allergies to chocolate are quite rare. It is classically that the person is in fact allergic to milk and dairy products.

Cacao tree is very fragile and susceptible. It requires safety from wind and needs an adequate volume of shade under most circumstance. This is real particularly in its first two to four years of development.

With pruning and cautious farming, the trees of most strains will start bearing fruit in the fifth year. With great attention, some strains can be persuaded to generate good harvest in the third and fourth years.

The tree has huge silky leaves that are red when novel and green when adult. The tree shoots thousands of small waxy pink or white five-petalled blossoms that arrange mutually on the stem and older branches. But only 3 to 10 percent will goes on to mature into full fruit.

The fruit has a green or sometimes maroon colored pods on the stalk of the tree and its main branches. Formed fairly similar to an stretched melon tapered at both ends, these pods regularly ripen into a golden color or occasionally take on a scarlet shade with multicolored spots.

In its maturity, the nurtured tree measures from 15 to 25 feet tall, though the tree in its wild state may reach 60 feet or more.

The job of picking ripe cacao pods is not a simple one. The tree is so weak and its roots are so thin that workmen could risk injuring it by climbing to reach the pods on the higher branches.

The planter dispatches his pickers into the fields with long-handled, mitten-shaped steel knives that can reach the highest pods and snip them without cutting the supple bark of the tree. Machetes are used for the pods growing within reach on the lower trunk.

Gatherers follow the harvesters who have extracted the ripe pods from the trees. The pods are gathered in baskets and carried to the edge of a field where the pod breaking procedure starts. One or two length-wise blows from a well-wielded machete are usually enough to split open the woody shells. A good breaker can open 500 pods an hour.

A great deal of patience is needed to finish harvesting. Anywhere from 20 to 50 cream-colored beans are scooped from a typical pod and the husk and the inside membrane are disposed.

Dried beans from a regular pod weigh less than two ounces, and around 400 beans are needed to come up with one pound of chocolate. Depiction to air rapidly alters the cream-colored beans to a lavender or purple. They do not look like the finished chocolate nor do they have the well-known fragrance of chocolate at this time.

The cocoa beans or seeds that are extracted from the pods are put into boxes or thrown on heaps and covered. Around the beans is a layer of pulp that starts to heat up and ferment. Fermentation lasts from three to nine days and serves to take off the raw bitter tang of cocoa and to develop precursors and components that are characteristic of chocolate flavor

Like any moisture-filled fruit, the beans must be dried if they are to keep. In some countries, drying is simply done by placing the beans on trays or bamboo matting and leaving them to relax in the sun. When damp climate situation hinder with sun-drying, artificial ways are applied. For instance, the beans can be carried indoors and dried by hot-air pipes.

With beneficial climate the drying procedure typically takes several days. In this gap, farmers turn the beans regularly and use the occasion to pick them over for foreign matter and flat, broken or germinated beans. During drying, beans lose nearly all their moisture and more than half their weight.

Once dried, the beans can be sold. Buyers taste the class of the crop by cutting open a number of beans to see that they are accurately fermented. Purple centers signify incomplete fermentation.

The beans are sold in international markets. African countries harvest about two-thirds of the total world output; Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria, and Cameroon are the leading African cocoa producers. Most of the remainder comes from South American countries, chiefly Brazil and Ecuador. The crop is traded on international commodity futures markets. Attempts by producing countries to stabilize prices through international agreements have had little success.