Thursday, December 31, 2009

Brown Rice

Rice plays a vital function in the Filipino tradition and gained its popularity as a staple of the country. Rice is among the most important foods in the world, providing as much as half of the daily calories for half of the world's population. In Asian countries like Thailand, rice is so extremely respected.

Brown rice is also known as “Pinawa” a kind of natural whole grain rice. It tastes like nuts which found to offer more health benefits compared to white rice. Brown rice is correlated with scarcity and shortages caused by war era and in the past it is taken by sick and elderly people as medication for constipation. In fact, brown rice today had become staple for individuals who wanted to care for their health. Rice is an ancient food which is thought to have been originally grown in China way back 6,000 years ago.

This customarily degraded form of rice is now traded luxuriously than white rice, fairly due to its less foundation and complexity of storage and transport. Brown rice is not only good for everybody’s health it had also something to offer towards the environment.

In the preparation of rice, it passes through various processes before it can be considered ready to cook. Following the harvest of the rice, it seeds are submitted for milling to get rid of the external husks and acquired the original brown rice.

• Arborio: A round grain, starchy white rice, traditionally used to make the Italian dish risotto.
• Basmati: An aromatic rice that has a nutlike fragrance, delicate flavor and light texture.
• Sweet rice: Almost translucent when it is cooked, this very sticky rice is traditionally used to make sushi and mochi.
• Jasmine: A soft-textured long grain aromatic rice that is available in both brown and white varieties.
• Bhutanese red rice: Grown in the Himalayas, this red colored rice has a nutty, earthy taste.
• Forbidden rice: A black colored rice that turns purple upon cooking and has a sweet taste and sticky texture.

Everybody requires a consumption of 25 to 38 grams of fiber a day. More fiber is seen in brown rice because it still has its bran in one piece. A cup of brown rice consist 3 1/2 grams of fiber and 88% of required daily value of manganese and a superior source of selenium and magnesium compared to white rice which has only 1 gram of fiber in a cup. It also contains nutrients such as magnesium, manganese, and zinc which are lessened its quantity in white rice but is reinforced with iron and some B vitamins.

Manganese in brown rice is essential in the superior health of the human nervous system. It supports in generating energy originating from protein and carbohydrates which is involved in the production of fatty acids. Manganese is as well a significant element of a very imperative antioxidant enzyme known as superoxide dismutase which is found with the body’s mitochondria that offers fortification opposing mutilation from free radical created during energy generation.

Nutritional value of brown rice is kept secured because the procedure that produces brown rice only eliminates the external surface of the rice kernel which is less damaging. Converting brown rice to white rice eliminates 67% of its vitamin B3, 80% of its vitamin B1, 90% of vitamin B6, 50% of its manganese, 50% of its phosphorus, 60% of its iron and removed all dietary fiber and essential fatty acids.

In addition to providing 14.0% of the daily value for fiber, a cup of cooked brown rice provides 27.3% of the DV for selenium, a significant advantage because countless Americans never acquired sufficient selenium intake in their diets, yet this mineral is of primary substance to human health. Selenium is a vital element of various key to metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems, and immune function. Gathered facts originating from potential studies, intercession experiments and studies on animal models of cancer has recommended a tough opposite connection between selenium consumption and cancer frequency. Some procedures have been recommended to justify the cancer-preventive performances of selenium. It has presented to persuade DNA restoration and fusion in impaired cells, to stop the propagation of cancer cells, and to encourage self-destruction which is known as apoptosis.

Phenolics is a very potent antioxidants that perform in various manners to avert illnesses, are among the major class of phytonutrients that have been broadly studied. Integrated within this wide class are compounds like quercetin, curcumin, ellagic acid, catechins, and many some compounds.

Apparently, there are various considerations for diabetic sufferers to take into a responsible consideration of diet and weight loss. It is important that the diabetic must discover everything there is to identify every areas of dieting and never rely on other people telling them what is right and wrong for them to eat. Dieting and losing weight needs a careful consideration of one's own personal body and metabolism. The more the diabetic person understands, the more enhanced it will be in preserving a vital phase of health.

A mineral that works as co-factor for more than 300 enzyme together with the enzymes involve in the in the utilization of glucose and insulin secretion is present in brown rice which is called as magnesium. The hazard of type 2 diabetes was 31% lesser in black women who regularly consume whole grains in contrast to those who take slightly of these magnesium-rich foods. Women’s nutritional consumption of magnesium is valuable because it offers a 19% decreased in the hazard of type 2 diabetes. It signifies that whole grains tender particular advantages in encouraging healthy blood sugar management.

Regular brown rice takes about 35 minutes to cook. When time is of the essence, don't decide on instant rice, white or brown, which has been partially cooked and dehydrated and has greater GL. Brown rice should always be the primary choice of rice.

The worry of acquiring colon cancer is become less worried with the consumption of brown rice. Brown rice is loaded with a converge quantities of fiber, an element which is required to reduce the quantity of time cancer-causing elements spend in acquaintance with colon cells. It also offer a great dosage of selenium, a mark mineral presented to considerably decrease the hazard of colon cancer.

Selenium is included in the functioning spot of various proteins, together with glutathione peroxidase, which is exceptionally essential in the avoidance cancer. Glutathione peroxidase is among the body's most influential antioxidant enzymes which is used by the liver to eliminate toxic properties consisting of broad scale of potentially dangerous molecules. Low rates of glutathione peroxidase turn these toxic molecules powerful and cause disorder on any cells which they encounter impairing theirs cellular DNA and encourage formation of cancer cells.

Selenium not only works in averting cancer as co-factor of glutathione peroxidase, it also performs mutually with vitamin E in various vital antioxidant networks throughout the body. These potent antioxidant actions craft selenium very valuable in the avoidance not only of cancer, but of heart disease, and reducing the indications of asthma and the soreness and swelling caused by rheumatoid arthritis.

Cholesterol level never gets lower on the diet of defatted rice bran but it has acquired a 7% reduce on the consumption on rice bran oil. Researchers construed that the decrease in cholesterol level found in those taking rice bran oil was merely because of the other compound found in the rice bran oil like unsaponifiable compound. As recommended by the scientists, unsaponifiables present in rice bran oil could become a useful foods in promoting cardiovascular health. In addition to unsaponifiables in brown rice, it has contains other valuable compound that offers all the cardio protective advantages supplied by the medium of nutrients biologically existed in this delightful whole food.

Consumption of whole grain like brown rice 6 times a week is an excellent scheme for postmenopausal women having lofty cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and other indications of cardiovascular disease.

A study published in the American Heart Journal, presented that this scheme of whole grain consumptions taken by 200 postmenopausal women having cardiovascular disease encounters gradual growth of atherosclerosis – the accumulation of plaque that slender the blood vessels and less development in stenosis – the thinning if the diameter of arterial passageways.

The occurrence of metabolic syndrome was 38% lesser to those in greater consumption of fiber from whole grains. Study subjects whose nutrition had the greatest glycemic index and glycemic load, both of which are normally low in whole foods and high in processed refined foods, were 141% more probably to acquire the metabolic syndrome in contrast to those whose nutrition had the lowest glycemic index and glycemic load.

Magnesium in the brown rice supports to normalize nerve and muscle tone by balancing the performance of calcium. In various nerve cells, magnesium operates as Nature's own calcium course blocker, averting calcium from hastening towards the nerve cell and stimulating the nerve. By blocking calcium's access, magnesium keeps our nerves, blood vessels, and muscles relaxed. Whenever a person’s diet offers too little magnesium, calcium can still acquire free access, and nerve cells can turn over stimulated, transporting too many signals which could cause extreme contraction. And also, inadequate supply of magnesium can be a factor to high blood pressure, muscle spasms, migraine, as well as muscle cramps, tension, soreness and fatigue.

Magnesium and calcium are both essential for healthy bones. Two-third of the magnesium content within the human body is seen in the bones. Portion of it help in providing the physical structure of the bone and the other portion is stored in the bone surface which is drawn when needed. Brown rice aides in keeping those storage refilled and prepared to meet the body's requirements.

A study in the overall consumption of fiber presented that taking foods high in insoluble fiber like brown rice, supports women in avoiding gallstones. Those who are in consumption of most foods abundant in insoluble fiber acquired additional 17% reduce hazard of acquiring gallstones compared to those who consumed less. Every 5 gram consumption of insoluble fiber drop the hazard of gallstones by 10%.

Increase consumption of whole grain brown rice in combination with fish could lessen the hazard of childhood asthma by around 50%. Kids with a low consumption of fish and whole grains had the pervasiveness of wheezing by almost 20%, which was only 4.2% in kids having a greater consumption of both foods. Depleted consumption of fish and whole grains is also associated with a greater occurrence of current asthma which is 16.7% compared to only a 2.8% occurrence of current asthma among children having a greater consumption of both foods.


Bok choy is a classified as cabbage with scientific name as brassica chinensis. The vegetable is a Chinese cabbage which is also called as snow cabbage. Chinese normally refer bok choy as pak choi which means “white vegetable.” Bok choy is originally propagated in China since early times, where it is applied in soups, stir-fries, appetizers and main dishes. Its popularity was revealed because of its sweet taste, crunchy texture and nutritional significance, where it offers less calories and high in vitamin A, C and calcium.

The plant appearance renders white stalks which bears a resemblance to celery devoid of the stringiness, while the dark green, wrinkled leaves of the most generic assortment is comparable to lettuce of Romaine.

Bok choy is instituted in Europe in 1800s which is at present promptly attainable in the supermarkets of North America. The vegetable plant is also broadly trendy in the Philippines due to existence of Chinese immigrants.

A consumption of half cup of raw bok choy offers 10 calories. It contains no fat or cholesterol and is a superior foundation of calcium. The vegetable plant is low in sodium and excellent in vitamins C and A. Bok choy's stalks and leaves can be applied in salads which offer a delightful and nutritious meal. In preparing bok choy, just simply rinse it with water to remove dirts, chop it and use in a desire application.

Bok choy contains various essential quantities of nitrogen compounds like indoles, phytochemicals which are thought to neutralize powerful estrogens which can encourage the development of tumors. It is also opulent in fiber, potassium, and every cup of it supplies calcium which is equivalent to a half glass of milk and nearly the total RDA for beta-carotene. Aside from those contents, bok choy is also an excellent source of folate the so-called vitamin B9.

Nutrients in bok choy
• Dietary fiber
• Protein
• Thiamin
• Niacin and phosphorus
• Vitamin A
• Vitamin C
• Vitamin K
• Vitamin D
• Riboflavin
• Vitamin B6
• Folate
• Calcium
• Iron
• Magnesium
• Potassium
• Manganese

The connection concerning diabetes mellitus and the shortage of magnesium is well known. Presented by the increasing proofs recommends that magnesium has a vital functions in lessening hazards of cardiovascular which may be included in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Improvement of insulin sensitivity is driven by the supplementation of magnesium. Researchers had acquired a favorable ground to accept that abundance of magnesium play a role in interrupting the initiation of type 2 diabetes and possibly warding off its ravaging impediments such as retinopathy, cardiovascular ailments, and nephropathy.

Various clinical studies presented diabetes patients have lesser mean plasma and free magnesium. This condition of insufficiency, which may take the outline of a unceasing dormant magnesium shortfall rather than clinical hypomagnesemia, may have clinical significance because the magnesium ion is a vital cofactor for various enzymatic responses involved in metabolic dealings.

Various factors which are accountable for the reduced magnesium levels in diabetes are possibly due to low magnesium diet, high renal flow of magnesium, insulin insensitivity. The association correlating magnesium insufficiency and the growth of diabetes is reinforced by the remarks that various medications for type 2 diabetes showed to raise magnesium levels.

Supplementation of magnesium in diabetic person does the following;
• Rectify the shortage in intracellular free magnesium rates
• Reduces platelet reactivity
• Enhances insulin sensitivity
• Protects opposing complications of diabetes and diabetes itself.
• Lessens blood pressure

What makes manganese so essential in diabetic person is that it normalized the blood glucose level. Among the other importance of manganese in the human body is that it used as fat and protein metabolism and the generation of energy. It is required in the promoting proper growth, preserving connective tissue, good for bones, cartilage and also supports in the synthesis of fatty acid. Also absorption of vitamin C, B and E relies on the adequate quantity of manganese.

The excellent tang of bok choy made it an ideal ingredient for salads and soups due to it verdant green leaves. Bok choy contains various vitamins and minerals and these existences created the vegetable plant valuable to human health. Vitamin A is significant in promoting an accurate performance of the body’s immune system, vision enhancement and proper bone development and vitamin K performs a vital role in the coagulation of blood. Vitamin K also assists in the absorption of calcium which preserves density of bone. Antioxidant coming from vitamin C is a well-known natural antioxidant that guards the body from the destructive influences of free radicals.

Calcium absorption is facilitated by the abundant vitamin D in this Chinese cabbage which supports teeth and bone health. Bok choy offers human body the enough quantity of folate which is needed in the accurate growth of body tissues and vitamin B6 which is vital for carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism and the construction of red blood cells and antibodies. Carotenoids like beta-carotene is also present in bok choy. These carotenoids are recognized for traits as antioxidant and are thought to lessen the hazard of various cancers. Carotenoids are also valuable in settling eye predicaments such as glaucoma and ocular degeneration.

High carotenoids in the body offers the following;
• Defend body cells from the destructive influences of free radicals
• Offers a good source of vitamin A
• Improves the performance of the immune system
• Supports in the proper functioning of the reproductive system

Carotenoids have presented its aptitude to motivate cell to cell communication. According to some advocates, poor communication between cells may one of the grounds of cell overgrowth which eventually direct to the formation of cancer. By encouraging accurate communication between cells, carotenoids may play a role in the deterrence of cancer.

An additional significant nutritional value of Chinese cabbage is its fat-free and low sodium properties which when in high quantities raises the hazards of heart ailments. Various clinical researches presented that correlation between the ingestion of cruciferous vegetables like boy lessened the formation of various cancers. These aptitudes were made possible because of glucosinolate compound which is present within bok choy which is then transformed into isothiocyanates in the body which is responsible in struggling cancer and enhancing the immune system. In conclusion, this nourishing vegetable can protect human body in combating numerous ailments including heart ailments, cancer and macular degeneration while supplying essential nutrients needed to bear the processes of fundamental existence.

Wednesday, December 30, 2009


Beans hold a mark in the history because it is one of the longest grown plants. It is collected by Afghanistan and Himalayan in their feral condition having kernel with the same size as the small fingernail. Beans initiated its domestication in Thailand as early as seventh millennium BC. Not until the second millennium BC did cultivated, large-seeded broad bean appear in the Aegean, Iberia and transalpine Europe.

Beans are considerably an alternative foundation of protein throughout Old and New World history, and still are today. Around 4,000 known cultivars of beans are recorded in the United States.

What differentiates beans from other plant life? Beans have shells with seeds inside them. Aside from beans this comprises peas, lentils and some people even include the peanut in this category. Legumes are able to take huge quantities of nitrogen from the air and transform it to protein in the seeds. They also restore huge quantities of nitrogen to the ground and because of this the green plants are sometimes plowed under as an organic fertilizer.

Right along with the early grains, legumes were among the initial crops nurtured back to the Bronze Age. Beans have been found in the tombs of the Pharaohs and Aztecs. The early Egyptians thought beans to be a symbol of life and had temples devoted to them. Later, the Greeks and Romans used them in celebrations to adore their gods. The Roman's four most eminent households were named after beans; Fabius (fava bean), Lentulus (lentil), Piso (pea), and Cicero (chickpea). Early explorers learned that Indians spotted all over the Americas cultivated and ate several types of beans. And from the very start, beans were carried back and forth, traded and planted as explorers and wanderers wondered the earth. In the Middle Ages beans were among the primary foods of the peasants of Europe. And in more recent times because of their excellent storage ability, beans were a primary food for sailors which is precisely how the Navy bean got its name. Beans have fed the armies of the world from ancient times to the wars of recent history. From the Great Depression right up to the present, beans have been known for their superior nutritional content. At a little fragment of the price of meat protein, one cup of cooked beans provides 25% of the daily necessity for the amino acids.

During the lean years of the Great Depression, beans were also tagged "poor man's meat" because of their protein power at pennies per pound. Beans are a source of Niacin, Thiamin, Riboflavin, B6 vitamins and many other nutrients as well. They are also rich in complex carbohydrates and fiber. All of these nutrients are necessary for normal growth and for the building of body tissues. Beans are high in potassium which is required for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles. A cup of cooked beans contains more potassium than a banana. In fact, beans have more calcium and iron per cup than three ounces of cooked meat but contain no cholesterol and with less calories.

Beans are the best source of folate and are excellent sources of minerals and vitamins. High in fiber they have good cancer fighting characteristics and have been specifically linked to lower the risk of colon cancer.

Recent research has brought to light that beans have 'anti-aging' agents or antioxidants found in the seed coat. There are eight flavonoids in the outer bean layer, six of which are particularly strong antioxidants. Because of new research, we are learning that beans have a perfect nutrient base for people interested in weight loss. They also aid in reducing cholesterol, improve digestion and, as already mentioned, are an aid in cancer prevention.

Beans are grown throughout the world. The legumes we supply come from the United States and are grown throughout the country on 1,700,000 acres of land producing from 1 to 1.4 million metric tons annually, half of which are exported all over the world. From improved agricultural practices, we feel beans grown right here at home in the USA have the highest quality of any bean grown anywhere.

Beans have somewhat of an awful standing because of their gas producing properties. However, there are various things you can do to reduce or eliminate this. The simplest thing you can do is pick a bean that is not as gas producing as the others. Gas is produced when the intestinal tract doesn't adequately digest beans.

The most likely reason for this is caused by a lack of enzymes required to digest this food. As your body gets used to eating beans, the required enzymes are presented and this trouble vanishes. There's also a method of presenting these enzymes through a product called Beano. Beano has alpha-galactosidase, an enzyme that supports digest the compound sugars that beans contain. They also work on broccoli, cabbage and other gas producing foods. There are a team of herbs that also lessens or remove the gas from beans. A couple of '00 gel caps' stuffed with nutmeg will also do the trick and that peppermint, spearmint, marjoram, anise, basil, caraway, carrots, dill, ginger, onions orange juice, parsley, savory, thyme and ginger are also reported to have gas reduction properties to one extent or another as well. Drinking orange juices with bean meals for years brings good results. That old wives tale of throwing a carrot in with the beans as they cook then throw it out is also founded on successful experience.

Water used for soaking must be thrown away before cooking them and also fruits shouldn't be taken at the same meal.

According to some studies, beans are good for the human heart but is in fact offering more than that. Beans produce more fiber that as it drives towards the digestive tract it grasp and catch bile having cholesterol, extracting it from the body prior to absorption. Taking a cup of cooked beans a day can reduce the total body cholesterol for 10% in a time frame of six weeks which lessens the hazard of heart ailments by 20% according to Patti Bazel Weil R.D. a diabetes nutrition educator.

A clinical study taken at the Universiry of Kentucky has presented that for three weeks of raising bean consumption reduced the men’s cholesterol at a rate of 19%. This findings concludes that it decreases the hazard of heart attack by around 40%. And due to its superior fiber content, it can restrain human appetite for fattier and more unsafe foodstuff.

People suffering from diabetes are having advantage in bean consumptions because the soluble fiber supports in producing additional insulin receptor spots. These spots are similar to miniature docks for the insulin molecules to attach to, permitting the insulin to get to the cells which requires it, instead of floating liberally through the bloodstream, which can cause problems. Thus, in reducing the hazard of heart ailments in those having diabetes, bean consumption is a must for it helps keep cholesterol low.

Addition to these advantages, the element seen in beans-isoflavins lagnins phytic acid sapopin and protease inhibitors- have been presented to maintain normal cells from becoming cancerous and reduce their development. Soybean has phytoestrogens, a fragile form of the estrogen produced in human bodies naturally. Phytoestrogens are believed to decrease the hazard of breast and prostate cancer, by obstructing overactivity of estrogen and testosterone which can encourage cancerous tumor development. Overall studies have shown Hispanic women have half the risk of breast cancer as white women. This disparity is believed to be due to the high content of beans in their diet.

32%DV of folate, 9%DV of potassium among the various daily dietary requirements can be found in beans which are also high in protein and fiber but less fat. The same benefits can be acquired on dried or canned beans, just make sure to rinse it well because canned beans are high in sodium preservatives.


Banana is an essential fruit which exist throughout the world not only to is delightful taste but due to its health benefits. Its importance made it as a traded commodity which in the same way or another is a source of income. In the manner of capacity they are the initially distributed fruit, they stand second in rank following citrus fruit in expressions of cost. As a fragile commodity, banana is said to be a very important product on economic, social, environmental and political foundation. Bananas are as well very consumable goods for some emergent states, mutually with wheat, rice or corn, for this reason, banana bears the importance of food assurance. Various principal banana generating nations, like India or Brazil, are scarcely engaged in banana global business. In fact, a fraction of around one fifth of the entire banana production is globally marketed. However, the contribution of banana traffic in global banana production raised gradually in the last decades. The international banana market shows a highly regional character.

Exporting nations stand on banana commerce as a very significant foundation of profit, employment and distribution revenues. Particularly those emergent nations in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in Asia and Africa. Provided by the statistical information, total worth of world banana traders as of 2006 is $5.8 billion, creating them visibly a very important resource of revenues to various nations. A solid connection subsists linking banana-generated profit and household food assurance. Distribution quantity or price variations produces about profit modifications for those completely engaged in banana production, both as small scale growers and as workers on banana farm plantations.

Banana shares several health benefits which are vital in the human health. It offers less calories, fat, sodium, and soluble fiber. The fruit contains superior quantity of potassium and magnesium. It is also good foundation of vitamin B6. The vitamin C in bananas supports in the protection of the human body against infections. The vitamin is verified to be essential in the production of connective tissue, the absorption of iron and blood formation. Potassium content helps in the structuring of muscles and protein production which done as potassium stimulate nerve impulses for muscle tightening. Potassium-rich diet is thought to decrease the hazard of hypertension and stroke. Banana fruit consists of three kinds of natural sugar which is sucrose, fructose and glucose that works best as energy booster. Vitamin B6 in the banana, aides in the production of antibodies within the immune system separate from red blood structure, protein metabolism and performance of the central nervous system. Banana burns off calories originating carbohydrate easily and with haste compared to calories taken from fat or protein.

Banana elements which are responsible in improving energy level of a person are its three natural sugar which sucrose, fructose and glucose.

Sucrose catabolism by Streptococcus mutans is initiated by a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase reaction that produces sucrose 6-phosphate; the latter is then cleaved by a sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase reaction that yields glucose 6-phosphate and fructose. We have examined the regulation of the sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase and found that it was synthesized constitutively whereas sucrose phosphotransferase activity was inducible. However, the levels of both sucrose phosphotransferase and sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase were repressed when fructose was used as a growth substrate. The specific activity of sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase in permeabilized cells was approximately 30 nmol/min per mg (dry weight of cells), and it had an apparent Km for sucrose 6-phosphate of 0.3 mM. Analysis of a mutant that was missing sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase activity revealed that its ability to hydrolyze sucrose was reduced.
Source: American Society of Microbiology

The rich, sweet and creamy taste of bananas made it a favorite fruit for everyone from infants to elders. It potent potassium content is highly appreciated by athletes as a source of high energy.

Potassium and Fiber, Defense for Cardiovascular Ailment
Potassium which is the most significant mineral in bananas helps in maintaining regular blood pressure and vital heart performances. Every piece of the fruit contains an enormous amount of potassium at 467mg. A consumption of banana a day may supports in preventing high blood pressure and guards the body opposing atherosclerosis which prevents the substantial hazard of stroke. This efficiency had been determined by the various studies relating foods having high content of potassium.

A study which was participated by 10,000 American adults which documents are kept in the Archives of Internal Medicine validates that consumption of high fiber foods like bananas, support in deterrence of heart ailments. The study presented that individual taking a 21 grams of fiber a day had 12% less coronary heart disease and 11% cardiovascular disease. Potassium content in banana helps in encouraging bone health. Potassium may frustrate rising of urinary calcium loss instigated by salty diet, thereby prevent bones from thinning.

Gentle Defense from Ulcers
Stomach ulcer and its impairment are alleviated by the antacid effects of banana. A simple blend of banana and milk considerably concealed acid emission in the stomach which if liberally taken for granted, could cause acidity that drives ulcers and other stomach ailments.

Substances in bananas made this protective performance possible. These substances stimulate the cells that create the inside layer of stomach and generate a thicker protective mucus barrier opposing stomach acids. Protease inhibitors is also a compound which if found banana fruit which is responsible for the elimination of bacteria in the stomach which is edntified as the main reason of stomach ulcers.

Improving Elimination
Diarrhea can hastily drain the body’s essential electrolytes which when happen could cause some elimination problems. A smart move in evading this predicament is the consumption of banana. Bananas refills the most importance electrolytes stored in the body which potassium that supports in controlling heart performances and maintaining body’s fluid balance. The soluble fiber in banana called pectin helps in normalizing the movement of the digestive tract and alleviates constipation. Bananas also contain resistant starch which amounts relies on the ripeness rates of the fruit. In their lesser ripe stages, bananas score as low as 30 on the glycemic index (below 50 would be considered low). In their riper phase, this quantity typically increases to a reasonable level in the 60's.

Develop Superior Bones
Having joy in the consumption of bananas in inevitable because its offers such a delightful taste which could make a person feel good. However, this aptitude is just the initial concern that banana could offer. Consumption of banana helps in developing a superior bones because it supports the body;s ability to take in calcium thru various mechanisms.

Remarkably bananas are an opulent foundation of fructooligosaccharide, a compound known as prebiotic that promote probiotic bacteria in the colon. These valuable bacteria generate vitamins and digestive enzyme that enhances the body’s ability soak up nutrients and other compounds that guard the body opposing unfriendly microorganisms. As fructooligosaccharides are stimulated by these friendly bacteria, not only do quantities of probiotic bacteria augment, but so does the body's aptitude to attract calcium.

Short chain fatty acids in green bananas are a preferred food of the cells that make up the intestine lining. As these cells are well-nurtured and healthy, the body's capability to take up nutrients like calcium can be raise radically.

A research published in one of the issue of Digestive Diseases and Sciences highlights how banana enhances nutrient absorption. The study is participated by 57 male babies of 5-12 months having constant diarrhea for a 14 day duration were provided a week medication of rice-based nutrition containing green banana. The treatment presented a 50% decrease in stool weights, signifying that the babies were absorbing considerable additional nutrients.

Reduce Kidney Cancer Risk
Hazard aspect of kidney includes smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, exposure to toxic chemicals like asbestos and cadmium and high consumption of fruit juices. These findings were presented by the results of kidney cancer which are diagnosed every year.

According to the research published in the International Journal of Cancer, continuous digestion of whole fruits and vegetables particularly bananas is highly important due to its protective ability. The upshots of this huge population based potential study (13.4 years) of 61,000 women aged 40-76, presented that women taking more than 75 servings of fruits and vegetables per month incise their hazard of kidney cancer by 40%. Among the fruits, banana offers the most protection. A consumption of bananas four to six times a week divided the hazard of acquiring disease into half.

Monday, December 28, 2009


Apple trees originally grown in the Central Asia where its untamed forebears are still seen on this very day. Around 7,500 known classes of apples ensuing a variety of required attributes. Every class differs in the volume of harvest and to its fundamental tree size. According to a worldwide survey in 2005, around 55 million tons of the fruits were cultivated around the globe having the cost of $10 billion. Among the countries greatly cultivated apple tree, China bears as the largest producer with a proportion of 35% of the entire world production followed by the United States, Turkey, France, Italy and Iran.

Apple is a mystical fruit which bears an appearance on various religious sectors. In religion, mythology and folktales, the phrase apple is applied as common expression for every foreign fruit with the exclusion of berries.

In the Greek mythology, hero Heracles had given a task as a part of this Twelve Labors to take a trip to the Garden of Hesperides and gather the golden apples off the Tree of Life.

In vengeance of the Greek goddess of conflict, Eris for being disqualified from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, she throw a golden apple carved “Kalliste” (which means for the most beautiful ones) in to the party. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite claimed the apple. Paris of troy was given the authority to appoint the recipient, which was Aphrodite, who tempted him with the most gorgeous woman in the world, Helen of Sparta.

Apple on Greek and Roman mythology is a symbol of love and beauty but the fruit contains vitamins like vitamin C, beta-carotene, iron, potassium and etc. Though its vitamin C is not as high compared to oranges, it does contain minerals like pectin and malic acid which are vital in normalizing digestive flow.

Apple is superior in treating several illnesses like anemia, dysentery, heart disease, eye disorder, headache, kidney stone and also encourages vigor and vitality. In providing essential fluids to the body to overcome liverish feeling, apple is very good because it never cause any allergic responses.

Various studies showed that apple contains a numerous elements that reduces blood cholesterol which also reduces hazard of ischemic heart ailments, prostate cancer, type II diabetes, stroke, asthma and Alzheimer’s disease.

Consumption of antioxidant-rich apple and its juices in combination of the balanced diet can care the brain from the upshots oxidative stress and is also superior in curing GERD which is commonly known as Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease.

Apples have its popularity for centuries due to its healing contents like pectin which are very essential to diabetic sufferers. Pectin which can be found in the rind and pulp of the fruit produces an extreme quantity of galacturonic acid which performs as a body detoxifier. It supports in eliminating damaging waste within the bloodstream which decreases the insulin requirements at a proportion rate of 35% and normalized the condition of diabetes type II. Aside from its superior pectin content, it is as well abundant in vitamin B1 which aides averting the damaging of the brain cells resulting from diabetic acidosis.

People having diabetes are persuaded on taking a minimum of five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Consumption of fruits a day will surely avert the rapid increase in blood glucose rates. Taking additional fruit and vegetables also supports in enhancing the overall balance nutrition. However, for diabetes patients, one must be vigilant in choosing what fruit to take. It is prudent to prefer fruits which categorized as low on the glycemic index. Fruits high on the index are bananas, mango, chikoo, custard apple, dates, pineapple.


Prostate Cancer
Researchers at Rochester, Minn.’s Mayo Clinic report that quercetin, a plant-based nutrient found most abundantly in apples, may provide a new method for preventing or treating prostate cancer.[Source:Cancinogesis,2001,22:409-414]

Colon and Liver Cancer
Researchers at Cornell University report that phytonutrients in apples inhibit growth of colon cancer and liver cancer cells in vitro. According to the Cornell University researchers, 100 grams of unpeeled fresh apple about two-thirds of a medium sized apple- provides the total antioxidant activity of1500 milligrams of vitamin C [ Source: Nature,2000,405: 903

Lung Cancer
Researcher at the university of Hawaii found that increase consumption of quercetin was associated with a reduce risk of Lung cancer. [Source: Journal of the national Cancer Institute,2000.92:154-160]

Epidemiologists from Finland’s National Health Institute report that consumption of Flavoniod-rich diet-and particularly flavonoid –rich apple was associated with reduce risk of developing cancer. Researchers found thata Lung cancer was 46 percent lower among those whose diet contained thehighest amount of flavonoids, particularly from apples. Of the majordietary flavonoid sources ,apple showed the greatest inverse association with Lung Cancer incidence. [Source: American Journal ofEpidemiology.1997,146:1223-230]

Researchers from London’s King College and the university of Southampton report that people who ate at least two apples per week had a 22-32 percent lower risk of developing asthma than people who ate fewer apples This conclusion was based on study of 1471 adults. [Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine , November,2001,Volume 164number 10:1823-1828]

Lung Function
Researchers from the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom report that apple eaters have better Lung function and lower respiratory disease such as asthma than non eaters,[ Source American thoracic Society‘s Annual Meeting May.2001, poster 618]

British researchers report that apple eaters had better lung function than non-apple eaters, Researchers postulated the healthful effect may be due to antioxidants in apples.[e.g. flavonoids like quercetin] [ Source: Thorax,2000, 55::102-108]

Researchers from the university of Groningen in the Netherlands report that eating fruits and vegetables and in particular an apple a day may reduce smokers’ risk of developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]. [Source: American Thoracic Society, unpublished findings presented at the society’s Annual Meeting, May 2001, poster 617]

LDL Oxidation
Researchers at the university of California- Davis report that daily consumptions of apples and apple juice may help reduce the damage caused by the “bad” type of cholesterol and protect against heart disease, based on the first human study of this kind.[ Journal of Medical Food,2000, 3:159165]

Researchers at the university of California- Davis reported that phytonutrients in apples and apple juice prevent oxidation in vitro of the bad{LDL}cholesterol and thus may help protect against cardiovascular disease. They also confirmed that important phyto nutrients from apples are also found in apple juice. [Source: Life Sciences,1999,64:1913-1920]

Coronary Mortality
Finish Epidemiologists concluded that high consumption of flavonoids from apples and onions was directly associated with lowest risk for coronary mortality. [Source: British Medical Journal,1996,312:478-481]

Thrombotic stroke
Finish Researchers report that persons who ate the most apples had the lowest risk of Thrombotic stroke, possibly due to the phytonutrients found in the apples. [Source: European Journal of clinical Nutrition,2000,54:415,417]


Ampalaya is among the vegetable fruit propagated in the Philippines. It is grown in untamed location in the country like Batanes. The vegetable fruit presents a bitter taste because of its momordicin content. Its efficacy in medication of diabetes is widely supported by various researches in the world. It has been exposed to increase production of beta cells by the pancreas, thus improving the body’s ability to generate insulin. It is among the best herbal remedy because of its potentials to cures liver problems, diabetes and HIV as recommended by the Department of Health in the Philippines.

The utilization of ampalaya had been initiated in China 600 years ago and it gained its popularity due to beneficial influences in human health. Among the disease that Traditional Chinese Medicine utilized ampalaya for, is the metabolic syndrome. Metabollic syndrome is a disease that comprises insulin resistance, hypertension, cholesterol irregularities, and the increase risk of clotting.

Ampalaya which is also known as bitter melon is as well gaining its popularity in some Asian dishes. Even though it was dishonored due to its bitter savor, still its existence made it important to everybody because of its curative contents. Ampalaya is abundant in iron, beta-carotene, potassium, and some nutrients. The importance of the vegetable fruit is focused on its advantage which is the anti-diabetic traits. At first, the curative application of this fruit in treating diabetes is applied traditionally which is by crushing its raw fruits into a bitter tonic or by boiling its leaves and fruits for a few minutes. But with the result of various studies regarding its efficacy and healing characteristics towards several ailments like diabetes, various existences was made possible that produces a more convenient way of taking the fruit in the form of medicinal tablets and capsules.

Ampalaya grows in vines climbing with stems mounting up to 20 centimeters in height. It leaves renders a shape of a heart which is 5-10 cm in diameter divided into 5-7 lobes. It flowers are yellow in color around 15mm long having a pair of tiny leaf alike branch. Fleshy green fruit, oblong with pointed ends, ribbed and wrinkled, bursting when mature to release seeds. Seeds flat with ruminated margins.

Acquired the most noted methodical which refers to its advantage to lower blood sugar level. Researches throughout the world had discovered the plant compounds which bears the most appeals in the eye of every health advocates. This compound is known as polypeptide-P, a plant insulin which is notably known to lower blood sugar levels. This benefits originated from ampalaya fruit had been taken pleasured by various diabetes sufferers who engross ampalaya in their daily nutrition in different ways. The existence of the traditional application of the fruit associated with the subsistence of modern knowledge and technologies which authenticated the advantages of the plants, it turns out to be the most potential herb for diabetes.

The anti-diabetic trait of the fruit is corroborated by the two qualified expert. Dr. William D. Torres PhD, former Director of Philippine Bureau of Food and Drugs MS Pharmacognosy, PhD Biopharmaceutics University of Mississippi, USA, had presented that ampalaya fruits, leaves, seeds and other parts when applied in a form of dry powder, extracts, decoctions had evidently portrayed hypoglycemic activity both in vitro and vivo.

A. Raman, PhD and C. Lau, PhD of the Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories Department of Pharmacy King’s College London, United Kingdom also presented in its study that oral administration of fruit as tonic or pulverized seeds driven a decrease in rapid blood glucose and enhances glucose tolerance.

Among the several applications of the plant which is considered through various health practices proven by several researches are the following;

• Astringent
• Antidiabetic
• Abortifacient
• Antirheumatic
• Contraceptive
• Galactagogue
• Parasiticide
• Anthelmintic
• Purgative
• Emetic
• Antipyretic
• Febrifuge
• Emmenagogue
• Cooling
• Tonic

Vitamins & Minerals
• Vitamin A
• Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
• Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
• Vitamin B3 (niacin)
• Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
• Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
• Vitamin B9 (folate)
• Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
• Vitamin E (d-alpha tocopherol)
• Vitamin K (menadione)
• Calcium
• Copper
• Iron
• Magnesium
• Phosphorus
• Potassium
• Selenium
• Sodium
• Zinc

Ampalaya is propagated throughout the Philippines and is referred as an amazing health food. The fruit is a nutritious vegetable which had gained trust by various health advocates that could be of good usage as a medicinal herb.

Currently, the utilization of bitter melon as a beneficial supplement is widely accepted on various commercial variants all over the world. Its market had grown rapidly, probably because of the various presented studies relating its efficacy on human health. Lately it has been confirmed and proven to be an operative herbal medicine for various diseases. Among the most significant illness is diabetes because it contains a blend of flavanoids and alkanoids that let the pancreas generates more insulin that regulates blood sugar in diabetic sufferer.

Ampalaya not only offers a good medical value, it also offers a good nutritional importance because it renders some of the vital nutrients that the human body needed. Among the nutrients are the vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, iron, folic acid, phosphorus, and calcium of which for some studies, these nutrients play a vital role in promoting superior health. Ampalaya is also abundant in antioxidants that keep body cells safe from the harmful influences of free radicals.

Various ailments had been found to be manageable by the healthful qualities of ampalaya. Such ailments includes cough, fever, worms, diarrhea which are all can be influence by taking a spoonful of ampalaya juice which could be both from its fruit rinds or from its leaves. Fruit leaves can be use to heal wounds, burns and other form of fractures by grounding its leaves and place it on the affected area.

A research conducted by Jun Yin, Hanjie Zhang, and Jianping Ye involving Traditional Chinese Medicine in treatment for metabolic syndrome utilizing herb plants like ampalaya or bitter melon.

In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium(American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect β cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines.

The Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo as well as the Research of Institute Kagome Co. have conducted a research on the Inhibitory effect of ampalaya or bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells.

1. Extracts of bitter melon, soybean, dokudami and welsh onion by 40% methanol increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 by Caco-2 cells, suggesting that these extracts inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
2. The extract of bitter melon was separated in a tC18 cartridge column and the eluate from 80% acetonitrile most markedly increased the [3H]-daunomycin accumulation by Caco-2 cells.
3. The inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were isolated by HPLC with Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by 1H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin.
4. The inhibitory activities of 1-monopalmitin and its related compounds suggested that the inhibition of P-gp activity was not dependent on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in the monoglyceride, but on the chain length. It was also suggested that the monoglyceride structure played an important role in the inhibition of P-gp activity.
5. Monoglycerides could therefore alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs by inhibiting the P-gp-mediated efflux.

A cohort of researchers conducted a study on the lipid lowering effects of ampalaya or bitter melon in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatoma cells.

• Hyperlipidemic effects of HIV-1-protease inhibitors (PI) are associated with increased hepatic production of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins, rather than lipoprotein clearance. PI are known to increase apolipoprotein B (apoB) secretion, apoC-III mRNA expression and decrease apoA-1 secretion. Nutritional therapy remains an important strategy to manage PI-associated hyperlipidemia.
• This study investigated the in vitro efficacy of Asian vegetable, Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM) to ameliorate PI-associated apoB and lipid abnormalities in HepG2 cells.
• Our study demonstrates that bitter melon juice (BMJ) significantly reduced apoB secretion and apoC-III mRNA expression and normalized apoA-I expression in PI-treated HepG2 cells. BMJ also significantly reduced cellular TG and microsomal TG transfer protein, suggesting that lipid bioavailability and lipidation of apoB assembly may play a role in decreased apoB secretion.
• Identifying molecular targets of BM may offer alternative dietary strategies to decrease PI-associated hyperlipidemia and improve quality of life among HIV-1-infected patients.

Source: PubMed



Akapulco is shrubby legume plant having leaves of compound dark green that grows vertically straight. The plant presented yellow flowers with 4-winged pods comprising of 50-60 flattened triangular kernels and enclosed with bracts which soon casted off. The plant scientific name is Cassia Alata.

The shrub grows wildly in various regions of the Philippines which basically utilized as an herbal medicine. Chrysophanic acid is seen in its leaf compound, a fungicide which applied for medication of ringworms, fungal infections, scabies and eczema. In fact because of its anti-fungal traits, it is applied as one of the elements in the creation of soaps, shampoos and lotions which was developed by the technology of Philippine Council for Health Research and Development. It leaves are also identified to be sudorific, diuretic and purgative, applied in medication of intestinal disorder which includes intestinal parasites. As an herbal medicine, akapulco is also utilized in the remedy of bronchitis and asthma.

Every portion of the plant contains anthraquinone glycosides that activates tightening of large intestines. Dried leaf and fresh flowers both possess laxative doses, which can be boil or infuse and taken as a pills or drink in association of honey which is said to be a cure for some intestinal discomforts. Its dosage must be properly directed because if taken over a long period, intestine accustoms to the drugs and intestine won’t perform on its usual activities in the absence of it which could results in enduring constipation.

A research conducted by J.W. Fairbairn and A.B. Shrestha of The School of Pharmacy, Brunswick Square, London, determining the distribution of anthraquinone in cassia alata.

The allocation of rhein-type and aloe-emodin kind of anthraquinone glycosides in developing Cassia senna L. plants has been studied. The seeds comprises no anthraquinones but shortly following germination chrysophanol, then aloe-emodin and finally rhein are developed in the young plant. In the existence of sufficient light, glycosylation follows and considerable amounts of glycosides show in the young leaves. These are perhaps translocated to the flowers and ovaries since large concentrations of glycosides accumulate there. During growth of the fruit, the quantity of aloe-emodin glycoside in the pericarp falls when the seeds turn separable from the pericarp and the quantity of rhein glycoside falls noticeably as the seeds grown-up and turn feasible. It is recommended that in this plant anthraquinone generation is closely correlated with fruit and seed formation.
Source: Science Direct

Among the health benefits of akapulco is its advantage stimulation on some stomach discomforts like. Among these curative effects are as laxative to drive out intestinal parasites, diuretic, purgative and concentrated decoction is said to cause abortion.

Application of akapulco in the treatment of the discomforts mentioned is by pounding or cut the plant seeds, leaves and flowers into convenient sizes and soak in boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes and the soaked water is the herbal tea which is then taken three times a day on a cup dosage. This herbal tea will only last for a day and if another tea is required in the next day, a new preparation must be consider.

Lung and mouth discomfort like bronchitis, dyspnoea, stomatitis, and asthma symptoms. This treatment also engages in the consumption of this plant by means of its tea. A consumption of one cup of its herbal tea three times a day is a good expectorant for the alleviation of asthma invasion. In treating mouth infections like stomatitis, gargling of the herbal tea three times day until improvement is seen is much ideal.

This plant is initially utilized as an herbal medicine of various skin infections like ringworms, eczema, scabies, itchiness, insect bites and tinea infections which is widely practice in the Philippine traditions. Its application involves pounding its leaves and compress to produce its extract or making it as an ointment and is applied topically in the affected area until such infections is cured.

The ointment produce of the plant is generally applied consisting of from 10 to 120 grains of the acid to 1 ounce of hot lard with which the acid must be carefully integrated. The areas influenced having been properly sanitized, to eliminate fatty elements, and any existing scales must be softened and carefully removed, this ointment is to be rubbed properly upon the affected areas 2 or 3 times a day. The potency of the ointment, and the quantity of applications per day, will significantly vary upon the number of irritation, as it frequently gives rise to more or less irritation, or even inflammation of the skin. When applying ointment is the face or head, proper direction must be observe to protect the eyes from its nuisance action.

Various studies which conducted to extract additional benefits of akapulco presented the following traits which is could be very beneficial as well. These additional benefits includes;

• Analgesic
• Phytochemistry / Antimicrobial Activity
• Antiseptic Soap
• Anti-inflammatory
• Anti-bacterial
• Hematologic / Toxicity Effects


Analgesic activity
85% ethanol extract of Senna alata of and kaemferol 3-O-sophoroside (K3S) purified from leaf extract showed analgesic effect with dose-response manner comparing to morphine after i.p. injection (Palanichang and Nagarajan, 1990). In addition, hexane extract from leaves of Senna alata also showed analgesic effect in mice shown as writhing effect after pain induction with acetic acid intraperitoneally (Viiasenor et al., 2002).
Anti-inflammatiory: Extract of leaves of Senna alata was found to have anti-inflammatory actions by inhibiting histamine secretion via stimulating peritoneal exudates cells of rats with concanavalin A and inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 & COX-2). However, the major flavonoid glycoside; kaempferol-3-O-gentiobiodiside is not the active constituent causing inflammation as the activity is mild (Moriyama et al., 2003).

Antibacterial activity
Water extract of leaves of Senna alata was found to be more potent than ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus. However, both extracts showed no bactericidal on E. coli (Palanichang and Nagarajan, 1990; Ibrahim and Osman, 1995; Somchit et al., 2003). Crude methanolic extract showed slightly and mild inhibitory effects on both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. But, broader spectrum of bactericidal activity and higher efficacy was observed when adding into the fractionate with petrol, dichloromethane or ethyl acetate (Khan et al., 2001).

Antifungal activity
Ethanolic extract of leaves of Senna alata showed potent antifungal activity to dermatophytes but has no activity on Candida albican, Aspergillus fumigatus or non-dermatophyte. The fungicidal effect was found to be due to cell leakage (Palanichang and Nagarajan, 1990).

Treatment of skin disease
Topical application of ointment prepared from ethanol extract of leaves of Senna alata, Lantana camara and Mitracarpus scaber once a day for 8-15 days on cows’ skin with dermatophilosis showed good efficacy within 3-4 days, no scar and no recurrence (Ali-Emmanuel et al., 2003).

Anti-teeth decay
Streptococcus mutans are prominent bacteria causing teeth decay as it can convert sucrose adhered on teeth enamel to acid leading to teeth decay. In vitrostudy showed that ethanolic extract of Senna alata at 0.5% can stop adhering of S. mutans on glass surface significantly. Furthermore, inhibit adhering of S. mutan ATCC 25175 and TPF-1 onto hydroxyapatite coated with saliva with IC50 0.5% and 0.4% respectively was also reported as well as reduction of activities of glucosyltransferase and glucan-binding lectin by both bacterial strains. By these studies, Senna alata is a promising herb for tooth paste formulation with anti-teeth decay property (Limsong et al,.2004).

Effects on intestine
Contraction of smooth muscle of guinea pig ileum was observed after adding water extract of leaves of Senna alata in isolated organ. In addition, intestinal movement was observed in mice after oral administration of the extract (Anonymous, 1988).

Laxative effect
After oral administration of water extract of leaves of Senna alata at dosages 5, 10 and 20 g/kgBW in mice, watery stool of every mouse was observed (Anonymous, 1988).

Antiplatelet aggregation
Adenine extracted from leaves of Senna alata showed anti-platelet aggression activity after platelet aggregation was induced with collagen. However, low effect was observed if induced with adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP)( Moriyama et al., 2003).

Source: International Center for Science and High Technology